پایان نامه با موضوع work، pair، not، learning

ailed comparisons, it was found that the mean difference between the experimental group and control group was not significant in the pre-test while this result was opposite for the posttest. From a theoretical perspective, the use of small group and pair work and its useful effect which was found by statistical evidences is also supported by two major theories of language learning: The psycholinguistic theory of interaction, based largely on the work of Long (1983; 1996), and the sociocultural theory of mind, Vygotsky (1978). Both theories emphasize the importance of interaction for learning. According to Vygotsky, interaction is essential to the development of individual thought; collaborative effort allows students to change roles; they act both as students and teachers by exhibiting a degree of self-reliance that simply is not possible in teacher centered environments.
Moreover, on the pedagogical side, several researchers have emphasized the multiple benefits of collaborative pair and group work in L2 learning; for instance, Kessler et al., (2012), Leki, (1993), Storch (2005), Ellis (2001), and Li et al. (2012).
Some studies like Clark (2003) have pointed out that if group work is not effectively executed by the teacher, students will not take it seriously, socialize more instead of working, allocate most work to a team member, complete the activity superficially and not engage themselves with the learning process. Harmer also (1991) declared that certain problems occur with pair work and teachers are often concerned about the use of the students’ native language in groups. To remove these concerns, we introduced a technique which involved both partners actively in the process of writing production and left no chance for evading one party or free ride. Also, exercising pair work gave more time to the teacher to focus on these aspects by intervening when necessary, trying to make the plan more effective. This is consistent with the assertion of Peregoy and Boyle (2001) that students in the peer response groups need transparent guidelines in providing their partners with constructive feedback in order to improve their partners’ writing.
Moreover, many studies done on L2 collaborative writing show that in the process of co-authoring an essay, much consideration is made not only on grammatical accuracy and lexis but also on discourse and language appropriateness (Donato, 1988; Storch 2002).
Also as Kessler and Bikowski (2010) explained, at higher levels (like the intermediate level which was selected in this study) there is some form of autonomy working in a collaborative team as the learner learns how to use the language to contribute personal meanings to the group and interpersonal strategies to work with team members.
In Iran there are studies, although few, which have examined exercising pair work in educational contexts whose results agree with the findings of this study. For example, Jafari et al. (2012) conducted a study on the effect of collaboration on Iranian EFL learners’ writing accuracy, finding that students in collaborative class outperformed students in the control group, writing individually.
Meihami et al. (2013) also found that obtaining corrective feedback from their fellows, enabled students to pinpoint their grammatical errors better and subsequently improve their grammatical accuracy in their upcoming writings. The results suggest that collaborative writing (CW) is beneficial in allowing EFL learners to make gains in grammatical accuracy.
Keshavarz et al. (2014) examined the effect of cooperative learning techniques on promoting writing skills of Iranian EFL learners. They found that by encouraging students to learn from one another and from more and less knowledgeable peers, they demonstrated more confidence in writing and decreased their apprehension towards writing and produced better writings.
On the other hand, as Tan, Sharan, and Lee (2006, p. 18) emphasized using a wide variety of authentic resources and materials is essential for presenting a product in collaborative class. Therefore, students need to have opportunity for more advanced input, such as from the teacher, and also need to receive input from authentic sources which work on it in their groups. Consequently, it could be that too much peer input and little teacher input can cause students to acquire incorrect language skills, and this can also lead to fossilization whereby students continue to use incorrect forms of the second language. For removing this problem, we conducted a peer-centered class but assured that teacher feedback and intervention are assured in any stage of the writing process and pairs are not alone in their task performance.
This study elucidated that cooperative learning enhances students’ writing performances. In this study, before cooperative learning in the class, the students obtained low scores, but after the implementation of cooperative learning for eight sessions, the students scored significantly better in their writings. So, it is obvious that the implementation of pair work learning in the writing has been proven to produce positive effects in students.
5.4 Pedagogical implications
This study can have different theoretical and practical implications. From theoretical aspect, this study can provide some hints for those researchers who are interested in developing a comprehensive and easy to use model for improving L2 writing performance. This study provides strong support for the assumption that a planned scheme for utilizing pair work can be really beneficial to EFL learners in improving their writing competence, especially in a technical class only for this purpose. That the control group’s subjects, which received no treatment (i.e. no pair work practice), did not significantly improve their scores on the post-tests is also significant in showing that individual writing and traditional methods of teaching writing in a way that the learner has to be given a topic and starts to write without any further help doesn’t work anymore. This is while, even a limited number of treatment sessions (total of eight sessions, excluding pretest and posttest) can be beneficial to the L2 learners in improving their writing skills and students could produce more accurate sentences than individual writers.
As a result, teachers need to be more innovative and knowledgeable in finding new techniques for improving language abilities and skills of their learners. The represented steps of this study which are in a systematic manner, and not vague or scattered like many studies before, can assist both teacher and students in using a way to turn the heavy burden of writing, as most students literally say, into an enjoyable activity in the class. During pair work practices, the students were happy and energetic and worked together to produce good writings. Also, because of the design of the study which rested on both students acting in the pair (one as the helper and the other as the writer) nobody could evade working and leaving the task to her partner. This promoted learner autonomy and self-directed learning, and also lowered the anxiety associated with completing tasks alone. Such writing efforts also increased motivation, risk-taking and tolerance among learners, giving the instructor more opportunities to work with individual learners. In addition, learners felt less anxious and more confident when interacting with their peers during pair activities compared with whole-class discussions. The capability to listen, ask question, convince, esteem the ideas of others, help, share and attend which has lifelong value was fortified by pair work. In the group work with others, tasks were broken into pieces and the workload could be distributed equally. In this way, students were able to deliver their ideas as well as learning from each other.
Then, if we are going to summarize the above-mentioned implications of pair work practices, they will be as follows:
1- Pair work a
ctivities encouraged co-operation between students since, in order to complete a task successfully, they had to work together and help create a very positive learning atmosphere in class – one where they genuinely want to work with others. It also normally led to students being less afraid of making mistakes. In addition, most students grew in confidence as they discovered that they can complete a task successfully without constant help from the teacher.
2- Pair work activities (especially of the ice-breaker type) led to greater personalization and students began to express their own personalities in a more natural and less inhibited way. This again contributed to creating a better learning atmosphere in class plus a positive group feeling.
3- Pair work activities were a lot more fun to do than more traditional exercises. Students who enjoyed what they were doing were more likely to learn than those who found the work boring.
4- Pair work was dynamic and active. Learning could not really take place unless the students were actively involved in the process. Pair work kept them active which increased their ability and desire to learn.
5- Pair work gave teachers a break from being the center of attention, from having to ‘perform‘, be dynamic, interesting, and so on. Instead, the teacher could stand back, listen more actively and think up strategies for helping the students increase their knowledge and confidence.
6- It allowed the teacher to monitor, move around the class and really listen to the language students are producing. It took the spotlight off the teacher and put it onto the students.
7- Pair work gave students a sense of achievement when reaching a team goal.
8- Pair work gave students a sense of accountability for their partners’ improvements.
9- It allowed the teacher to monitor, move around the class and really listen to the language students were producing.
10- Another advantage of this method was that in this way, the time was economized. This can be of great help and more interest especially, for the university professors who have many students and are short of time in writing courses.
5.5 Recommendations for Future Research
Based on the achieved results of this study, there are some points that can be examined in further studies. This study was conducted to examine the effect of pair work on writing performance of EFL learners at intermediate level. But, this effect can be investigated on the learners of all levels since the steps of pair work, offered in this study can be easily understood and executed by the students at all levels. All participants of this study were female. While, the gender of subjects may be effective in the achieved results and this role should be considered. The place of the study was a language institute (Pardis Institute) for this research. But, its techniques can be applicable in more academic settings like writing classes of universities. The teachers should increase their knowledge about pair work and consider this technique in their syllabus and utilize the numerous advantages of it in their teachings, especially, the university professors who have many students and little time in writing courses. This study had a limited statistical population which was for the limited number of applicants in the institute. Future researches can consider higher population and probe the stages of pair work on them. This study investigated the aspect of grammatical accuracy as the measure of improvement for the students writing, but, further studies can test the improvement of fluency and complexity of their writings by pair work. We utilized the mentioned steps for improving writing in a technical writing class. But, further studies can test their applications in combination with other three skills of language, not the writing alone.
5.6 Limitations of the

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